Students Presentations & Links Discussed

Presentations: Ion Channels: Implication in Pathological Conditions (MS 2018-2019)

Presentations: Diseases and Ion Channels (MS 2017-2018)


Presentations: Neurosciences Fundamentals (MS 2016-2017)

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Exists a large number of sites explaining the Electrical Properties of Excitable Cells, many of them are realy good however, some fail to have elements needed at the Graduate Level.

In this section you will find links that were discussed in the classroom using critical thinking. From 2015 the comments from Students after discussion has been added.

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Year 2016: Links discussed and commented by first year Students of the School of Medicine of the Universidad Central del Caribe.

G1. Action Potential
http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/actionpot.html
Submitted by: Katira Andino, Andrés Tirado, Juan Vázquez, Ashley Fonseca, Porfirio Díaz, Lynette Viruet, and Mauricio Gómez
Comments from students: For our website critique, we selected a site from Shippensburg University, located in Shippensburg, PA. This university was founded in 1871, and according to the book, “America’s Best Colleges 2012, it is regarded by the U.S. News & World Report as one of the top public universities in the North.
The author of the site is professor emeritus at Shippensburg University, George Boeree, who specializes in personality theory and the history of psychology. As a psychologist, Prof. Boeree demonstrates proficient knowledge in the action potential processes of the neuron, and its relation to the brain, as this relate to the multiple sociological disorders commonly studied in the field of psychology.
This publication provides a good “global” picture of the action potential and the action potential mechanism. But, the casual and oversimplified language used on this publication gives it the feel that this article was written more for high school students than for graduate students. In addition, the use of general terms like “sodium channels” and “potassium gates” throughout the text without specifying what kind they are (i.e. ligand-gated, voltage-dependent), takes away from depth and specificity in the material which limits the amount of information one can acquire from this site, and this, we find unfitting for a graduate level publication.
Now, judging the website on its didactic merits, the website does provide a myriad of diagrams and even some animations, which would prove helpful for any student that is learning the material for the first time. Our group liked in particular the graphical depictions of the sequential inflow and outflow of ions as the action potential travels down the axon of the neuron, and the saltatory conduction and how this affects the action potential travel speed. Overall, we find this website to be a good source for high school student because of the oversimplification of the material presented, making it difficult for any graduate student to obtain any further information about the subject.
(323 words)

G2. Topics that range from basic science to advance clinical practice

Electrical signalling in neurons


Submitted by: María Granadillo, Keyla Bordonada, Xiomara Nieves, Héctor Quintero, Carlos Santiago, Javier Otero, Jean Carlos Matos, and Nicholle Carrión
Comments from students: The website we reviewed was ClinicalGate (http://clinicalgate.com/electrical-signalling-in-neurons/), a search engine aimed at medical professionals where you can find pertinent information about many different topics that range from basic science to advance clinical practice. It claims to “think like a physician”, thus making information readily available, organized, concise, and simple. In the topic we researched, electrical signaling in neurons, the information was given in a very clear manner, with a few graphics which are informative and give a good insight and understanding of the topic.
The good organization, the clear explanations, and the simplicity are very good assets of this site. In addition, every few paragraphs it summarizes the most important topics in key points to remember. This helps you keep track of what you have learned and helps your retention increase. However, there are a few things that could make the website even better and more useful. Here are a couple of them which we considered were relevant:
1. Use of graphics: the graphs used on the site are ok, but not all of them are complete (for example, fig. 6.2 shows you a Na-K-ATPase pump, but it doesn’t show what is intracellular and extracellular). It could also benefit from more advanced graphics and videos that really show well how the resting membrane potential is maintained, how the ion channels work, and how the action potential is started and transmitted along the membrane.
2. Also, for a site claiming its reliability, its sources are nowhere to be found. Not only are this important for knowing how updated is the information and which papers and text books are they using to write their articles.
3. Membership fee is required to read the full articles. Even the most prestigious scientific journals offer free articles, and the ones that require a membership, they provide you with a complete abstract, references, and graphics so that you can base your decision to make the purchase or not. This website has no “free articles” and all the rest of the information is blocked so one cannot assess all the tools before making an investment.
(384 words)

G3. Passive and Active properties of Excitable Cells
http://neurons.med.utoronto.ca/index.swf
Submitted by: Nicole Fossas, Ashley Sánchez, Miguel Salgado, Juan Salgado, Jean Paul Rodríguez, Luis Japhet Lozada, Alicia Martí, and Jeremy Feliciano
Presentation: http://prezi.com/ldddujtois-v/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share
Comments from students: We found that the website we selected was very appropriate and complete in regard to its representation and description of neurons. It contains 8 chapters in which most aspects of electrical synapses and neurons are thoroughly described. The websites is very user-friendly and easy to navigate. It contains animations which are interactive and allow you to repeat certain steps in order to further understand particular aspects of the mechanism which is presented (i.e. action potential firing, resting membrane potential maintenance). The website is peer-reviewed and AAMC approved; it cites the sources used at the end of each chapter. Further, it contained correlations to drugs and anesthetics which provided clinical relevance to the otherwise purely physiological information provided. Overall, although it seems simple due to its attractive graphics, animation and web-design, the website provides very thorough information we deemed appropriate for use at a graduate academic level. If we had to rate it on a scale of 1-10, 1 being a website we deemed completely inappropriate while 10 would be the highest consideration awarded for a website which offers complete and thorough information on the subject of neurons, we would give it a value of 8/10.
(146 words)

G4. Action potential generation
http://psych.hanover.edu/krantz/neural/actionpotential.html
Submitted by: Noellie Rivera, Karen Placeres, Gustavo Vázquez, Gustavo Lamela, Eric Allen, Ana Fhadel, Gian Rodríguez, and Stephanie González
Comments from students: We chose this link because it discussed the basic concepts that are needed to understand the mechanism behind the generation of an action potential. The link is divided in sub-links on general topics: diffusion, electrical charge, voltage and axon, depolarization, repolarization and action potential. On each topic there is a simple but clear explanation. There are also words with links attached to their definition and animated pictures that help visualize what is happening inside the cell. Another positive aspect of the site is that, after the explanation of some topics, there is a question to check for comprehension. Although the link is directed towards simplicity, that could be also its downside. It didn’t mention the advantages of myelination and maybe a brief overview on that topic would give a more complete explanation. Nevertheless, the link does fulfill with its stated goal that is to give a basic review of why the action potential acts as it does.
(157 words)

G5. Membrane potential and the action potential
http://www.mun.ca/biology/desmid/brian/BIOL2060/BIOL2060-13/CB13.html
Submitted by: Orlando Rodríguez, Dhalma Bayrón, José Pérez, Héctor Reyes, Ricardo Pineda, Nicole Sosa and Amanda González
Comments from students:This page is about electrical signaling in cells and the components that this requires. It begins by talking about the nervous system and explaining its components such as the central and peripheral nervous system and the cells involved in each. Then it proceeds to provide us with functional information on the membrane potential and the action potential, and how these are required to transmit electrical signals. It also offers details on the role of an action potential and how this is the principal mechanism to carry out the electrical synapse between cells using depolarization. This website has very good strong points. The material presented goes from general concepts to more specific and complex information. The site uses pictures and diagrams to explain difficult concepts via links. These hyperlinks offer a visual representation of a neuron, under the integrative influence of multiple inputs at a time, given in real-time and with its accompanying theoretical explanation. It also gives a good account of temporal and spatial summation which, together, form the main synaptic inputs that are associated with action potentials. Unfortunately, we also found that the website has a few weaknesses…

G6. Excitatory and inhibitory neurons
https://apps.childrenshospital.org/clinical/animation/neuron/
Submitted by: Eli Cohen, Iván Pérez, Paula Marín, Sofía Colón, Claudia Moreda, Leopoldo García , Diego Román, and Sergio Santiago
Comments from students: The app outlines the structure of the myelinated neuron and its parts. It allows for dynamic learning as one can mouse over each of its parts to read a description. It contains five tabs with different concepts in each. The introduction tab is followed by the “Fire!” tab, its purpose is to demonstrate the effect of excitatory neurons and inhibitory neurons on a voltage over time graph with interactive control of how many dendrites are being stimulated. It falls short to really convey the property of saltatory conduction present in myelinated neurons and completely omits the visual complexity of the different types of synapses which can result in stimulation or inhibition. On the other hand the illustrations are very helpful for understanding the principle behind conduction and its mechanism of interaction with other neurons at synapse. This site’s focus is meant for fundamental teaching and communicating concepts visually in order to build upon them. As a team we agree this site gets a 7/10 for well communicated concepts and above average level.
(154 words)

G7. The Neuromuscular Junction
http://study.com/academy/lesson/the-neuromuscular-junction-function-structure-physiology.html
Submitted by: Tomás Daviú, Félix Ferré, Josué Dávila, Analiz de Jesús, Sharyl Valdés, Tomás Pastrana and Gabriella Glassman
Comments from students: Study.com’s lesson on the neuromuscular junction effectively explains the step by step process of transmission through a video lesson with a full transcription included. The video provided helps one visualize how neurotransmitters diffuse across the synaptic cleft to the postsynaptic membrane. In order to simplify the learning process, the video uses the analogy of a lock and key for describing how neurotransmitters and their receptors interact. This video, however, does not cover the difference between excitatory and inhibitory signals. In order to learn this difference, other videos (of which there are thousands) must be viewed. Other lessons explain how excitatory effects are caused through influx of positive ions resulting in a depolarization, whereas inhibitory effects are caused by an influx of negative ions (e.g. chloride) that cause hyperpolarization. Overall, this website is a good study tool, but it should not be used as the primary source. Its lessons are short in scope, but clear and concise. (7/10)
(146 words)

G8. Neuronal Action Potential
http://www.physiologyweb.com/lecture_notes/neuronal_action_potential/neuronal_action_potential_important_features.html
Submitted by: José Fossas, Viviana Barquet, Mariana Cacho, Cristian Vega, Edwin Narváez, Carolina Sierra, Christian Vega and Luis Vélez
Comments from students: PhysiologyWeb, on its article “Neuronal Action Potential”, provides a well-organized and simplistic outline of the study of membrane’s action potentials. Through schematic figures it is able to present and explain important concepts such as: the definition of action potentials (AP) in terms of changes of permeability, the ion balances and their pharmacological importance, the “all-or-nothing” rule of AP in relation to threshold, a stepwise description of what constitutes an AP, and the differences in membrane conductance and voltage throughout an AP. However, there are drawbacks in the article. In the introduction it fails to mention the three key properties of voltage-gated ion channels, it doesn’t mention the difference in amplitudes that occur if the synapse takes place in the dendrite or soma of the neuron, and how it affects the propagation of an AP. It lacks a schematic figure to better understand the ion balancing concepts presented and hardly explains the importance of the refractory period and the limitations it sets to the cell. It did poorly in depicting the cell physiology overall, since it doesn’t even mention what biological factors determine the resting membrane potential. And lastly, it lacks attributable references, making it an untrustworthy source of information.
(199 words)

G9. Excitable Cells
http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/E/ExcitableCells.html
Submitted by: Juan Vidal, Julienne Sánchez, Ricardo Declet, Omar Rodríguez, Mónica Rodríguez and Nadya Rivera
Comments from students: The website’s information is fairly condensed yet at a macroscopic view it is fairly accurate. The website gives a vague definition of excitable cells. It fails to mention that ionic concentrations, specifically potassium’s, are responsible for the cell’s resting potential. Also, while it mentions the Na/K ATPase it doesn’t not give an in depth view into this pump. The Ionic Relation segment manages to describe intracellular and extracellular ionic relationship at its most simplistic form. It lacks the explanation behind why that specific relationship is established. Standardized ionic values are not expressed either. It also fails to mention that a cell’s depolarization occurs as it turns less negative. When it mentions action potential, it says there is “some 7000Na+ enter the cell”, which is ambiguous, as it does not mention any unit. It doesn’t explain the terms “refractory period”, “hyperpolarization” nor “saltatory conduction”. The website implies that there are excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, when it really depends on how the signal is interpreted, rather than the neurotransmitter itself. Also, when it mentions axon hillock’s low threshold, it should explain that this fact causes sensitivity towards any change in membrane potential. Thus, preventing the neuron from being depolarized when there is another segment of the neuron receiving inhibitory signals. However, the overall explanation of action potential is correct, although too summarized.
(220 words)
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Year 2015: Links discussed and commented by first year Students of the School of Medicine of the Universidad Central del Caribe. 

G1. Neuromuscular Transmission [150209 14:47]
https://tarek.org/wiki/images/6/65/09_-_22_Sept_2003_-_NeuromuscularTransmissionDrSim.ppt.
Submitted by: Angel J. Rivera Aponte; Sunny Qi Huang; María del Mar Reyes de Jesús; Julie Plaud González; Ricardo Rivera Cruz; Lorraine Torres García; Caroline Bozeman
Comments from students: We selected this link because it is a simple, intelligible explanation of the NMJ. Specifically, we found it interesting that it showed proof of the quantal release of Acetylcholine and that it included the clinical application of myasthenia gravis. The abundance of visual aids facilitated the teaching process. For instance, electron micrographs displayed the exocytosis process with vesicles clearly visualized. Some diagrams demonstrated the proportional increase in EPP amplitude proving quanta release of Ach, while others displayed the change in EPP due to blocking the receptor or Acetylcholinesterase. Unfortunately, the time limit prevented us from discussing the entirety of the PowerPoint ®. Additionally, while we were interested to see Myasthenia Gravis discussed, we questioned the lack of review of LEMS and botulism. The link also did not include any videos or interactive games. Overall, we felt that the link offered a comprehensive description of the NMJ from a credible source. (149 words)

G2. Electrical signaling [150209 15:39]
http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/electricalsignaling.html
Submitted by: Kristina Santiago; Nicholle Carrion; Javier Ortega; Miguel Lapetina; José Camuñas; Juan Rojas; Judith Canabal
Comments from students: For our webpage discussion we chose a site titled Sumanas, Inc. In this webpage you can find a myriad of videos or animated tutorials related to the fields of Neurobiology and Biopsychology. It includes a series of videos regarding electrical properties of neurons. We choose the resting membrane potential video that explains the ionic dynamics that confer electrical properties to a cell. The video shows basic concepts but are well explained. The website facilitates learning by either narrating the process or by allowing the user to read them step by step. As a result, it is a really good site to consolidate concepts after consulting other types of literature. One possible downside for this site is the fact that it doesn’t make readily available the sources used to present the information. As a reference for its material, it has a link to the website of the editorial house of the book from which the information is found. (157 words)

G3. Synaptic transmission [150209 23:05]
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XcSAChoXClA
Submitted by: Giselle Torres; Iciar Dávila; Paula Buonomo; Clara Gómez; Andrés Martínez; Juan Salgado; Juan Benitez; Bernard Muñiz; Alexandra Ramos
Comments from students: Referring to the above mentioned link, the animation presented reflects an accurate description synaptic transmission, specifically, synaptic transmission involving NMDA and AMPA receptors. Despite the didactic value, this link can only be utilized by a select population. Although the lack of audio makes it ideal for this to be utilized as a teaching resource during a conference, those who are unfamiliar with the subject cannot use this as an introductory self-studying resource. The lack of detailed explanation, either in written or audio format, could easily lead to confusion or misconception if they are being exposed to the subject for the first time. Further, even though parent website (youtube.com) does suggest related animations, these are of varying quality and type. The suggestions are random as are the search terms used to find, which are also nonspecific. The fact that an animation of a particular topic is found does not mean that a similar topic will be, or that the topic searched will be covered in depth. This brings up the point that although the above mentioned link could be a useful tool, it is not one that can be readily used by everybody. (192 words)

G4. The Neuromuscular Junction [150210 00:27]
http://www.darylconant.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=309:nerve-to-muscle-synapse-the-neuromuscular-junction&catid=:blog
Submitted by: Brandon Cabarcas; Luis Molinary; Marinellly M. Garri; Lucia Rivera; Juan Torres; Jael Camacho; Ivonne Pieve
Comments from students: The article is based on the explanation of how muscle fibers are innervated by a motor neuron, how the stimulus is propagated from pre-/post-synaptic membranes and the differences in the innervation of larger muscles to smaller ones. On first hand, the article gives a brief explanation of how the stimulus propagates from nerve to muscle, with a language specific for a distinct audience, making it difficult for a general audience without a human physiology background to understand. Coming from the fact that the article was published on a website mainly focused on strength and conditioning training. A key introductory point made in the article is the explanation of how a muscle gets the signal to contract itself and produce force or tension. The author makes an important point in explaining that one nerve usually innervates one muscle cell or muscle fiber, creating what is known as a motor unit. Also, that long fibers can innervate multiple muscle cells within the same muscle. It should be further explained that the determination of quantity of muscle cells a single motor nerve can innervate depends on the function of it. In other words, the smaller the muscle less motor units should be needed. The contrary should be observed for larger muscles, in where one motor neuron can innervate multiple muscle cells. Muscles of the legs are relatively big and have more muscle fibers. A single motor neuron has multiple motor units, “with the purpose for muscle fibers to work in coordination with each other and to don’t have many nerve fibers innervating every single muscle cell”. They also can receive the same stimulus at the same time. Consequently, making the muscle work in a syncytium, a functional component that works in synchronization which each other. Just imagine yourself on a boat trying to row, with the guy next to you rowing out of rhythm. Now imagine even a bigger boat, like the muscle on our legs or trunks, what would happen if every single fiber decided contract whenever she wanted? That’s why one motor neuron can innervate multiple muscle fibers.Another important factor that should be brought to attention is the description of the excitatory and inhibitory roles of a synaptic junction. In the article the author refers to the postsynaptic potential created after the release of Acetylcholine (neurotransmitter/messenger) as an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP). In fact, the postsynaptic potential created at the neuromuscular junction in the postsynaptic membrane (muscle cell) is called an endplate potential. It may have characteristics of an EPSP but not entirely. Excitatory or inhibitory roles of a synapse are mainly in nerve-nerve junctions. Since the motor unit is the site where the nerve and the muscle meet, is the end of the stimulation pathway, it can only present itself with the role of being an excitatory stimulus. The message transmitted is to contract the muscle. An inhibitory stimulus would not be suitable in this case, contrary to a neuronal connection in where you need to have checkpoints and damage/quality control to ensure the functionality of the neural system. That’s where excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potential come to work. In the neuromuscular junction, the EPP is created by the postsynaptic membrane as a response to acetylcholine receptor channels opening. This change in the endplate membrane potentials is what promotes the signal to the muscle. The latter being an important property when determining the functionality of a muscle by what type of muscle fibers it has. At the end of the article, the author explains the difference in the impulse per second rate of two different muscles. Again, an observation should be made on the type of fibers that the muscle have, which the author does, and the type of function it carries. A muscle possesses slow, intermediate and fast fibers, which allows the body to respond in a slow or a higher pace. In the case of the comparison it should be explained the purpose of the firing rate in correlation to the function the muscle is carrying out. Fast fibers produce force fast and consequently fatigue themselves quicker. Contrary to it, slow fibers do not fatigue quickly because they are stimulated at a slower rate. It is solely for the purpose of the muscle, which explains why a muscle has a predominant type of fiber. The soleus helps maintain posture; it would make sense to have fibers that fatigue slowly to be able to stand for minutes in the bank waiting in line without having to seat down. Overall, there are facts stated in this article that helps the scrutiny process of understanding the neuromuscular junction and its function. Key components are presented well, but the integration and association with simple examples should be given to the audience for better understanding of the physiologic process in the neuromuscular junction. (800 words)

G5. Propagation Along Myelinated Axons [150210 08:08]
http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter14/index.html
Visualizing Synapses http://brainu.org/visualizing-synapses
Submitted by: Violeta Álvarez, Gian Ramos, Miguel Anzalota, Georgina Medina, Cristina Franceschini, Eric Maldonado; Viviana Meléndez; Nichole Colom.
Comments from students: The website that our PBEM group presented as part of the Neuroscience class activity is an interactive website from the textbook titled Human Anatomy from McKinley O’Loughlin. This website offers animations and instructional modules that are apt for graduate level educational instruction. It is important to note that this resource is not meant to substitute actual professor lead instruction nor textbook reading. However, the website does a good job at illustrating how action potentials are propagated through the neuron specifying detailed steps. Each animation is coupled with practice questions to insure proper understanding. At the student’s disposition, there are also labeling exercises and flashcards that will keep any sleep deprived medical student entertained. One drawback was that fact that the animation depicting the action potential lacked understanding of the Hodgkin cycle of the Sodium channel. (135 words)

G6. Electrical transmission [150210 09:22]
https://wikispaces.psu.edu/display/230/Membrane+Potential%2C+Ion+Transport+and+Nerve+Impulse
Submitted by: Rafael Cardona; Manuel Del Valle; Laura Seda; Yael Piñero; Patricia Pagan; Myladis Reyes; Victor De Leon
Comments from students: Classmate presented external resources in the form of websites that provided additional information about neuron electronic processes. These websites provided tools such as pictures and videos that allowed us to review the material in a different way than textbooks. This proved really helpful since several processes can be difficult to visualize, for example the propagation of an electronic potential along a neuron axon, and having several resources available to the student is a great way for all to understand the concept. These websites also had the advantage of covering several aspects of the concepts in an easy to understand and simplified manner thus making them even a better learning tool for students. The presentations were also helpful because they showed the rest of the students how to use the site and demonstrate the available info available to us. By having the students look for such sites promotes active learning and the search for available information in places that aren’t our usual sources. (162 words)

G7. Synaptic transmission [150210 11:00]
http://tinyurl.com/lkb5247
Neurotransmission: http://tinyurl.com/lo3btcz
Submitted by: Francis Carro; Felix del Rio; Sheila Perez; Jorge Illanas; Xavier Lopez; Sybelle Serrano; Julianne Pila
Comments from students: BrainFacts.org es un enlace web educativo dirigido a educar sobre conceptos y enfermedades de neurociencias. Es una iniciativa pública que comenzaron tres sociedades o fundaciones relacionadas con la neurociencias, Kavli Fundation, Gatsby y Society for Neuroscience. Por esta razón podemos decir que es un enlace confiable donde vemos como diferentes profesionales en el tema abundan sobre diferentes estudios que están llevando a cabo. Además educa sobre lo que es el cerebro y como se relaciona con el cuerpo. El enlace está dirigido a todo tipo de público ya que habla de forma sencilla y resumida, sin usar mucha terminología médica. Por otro lado, no usan muchos audiovisuales explicando los procesos que llevan a cabo, cosa que podría facilitar la lectura de la persona interesada en visitar la página. No se observan auspiciadores ni anuncios públicos en la página que no tengan que ver con el tema de neurociencias, lo que refleja que no se intenta persuadir al lector. (158 words)

G8. CASE STUDY: Nitrous oxide myelopathy posing as spinal cord injury [150210 11:02]
http://tinyurl.com/p5j3oll
Submitted by: Hiram Acevedo, Abner Martinez, Francheska Rivera, Nanichi Ramos, Andrew Morell, Claudia Roldan y Marino Blasini.
Comments from students: The article is extremely interesting and talks about a lesser known addiction. This addiction has an increasing popularity in the USA and this article explains the negative consequences of the excessive consumption of nitrous oxide or also known as “whippits”. However, the article talked about too many specific topics, but never explained them thoroughly. A broad understanding is needed to fully understand the paper; therefore this article is not recommended for the general public. Further research is needed to understand some of the concepts that were lightly explained. The radiographies do not have any explanations and do not have a legend to identify what is observed. Treatment mechanisms were not explained well and therefore further research was needed to understand biochemical aspect behind demyelinating effects of nitrous oxide abuse. Overall, this article is recommended for health professionals and students with a broad scientific knowledge. (144 words)

G9. Action Potential [150210 11:40]
http://outreach.mcb.harvard.edu/animations/actionpotential_short.swf
Submitted by: Harry N. Alleyn, MPH; Carolina Diaz; Daniel Leal; Nicholas Casellas; Jaime Huertas; Liliana Llopart; Acela Rosado; Natalia Betancourt
Comments from students: The interactive site provides a learning opportunity to better understand the effects of membrane channels, in this case voltage gated potassium, voltage-gated sodium and the sodium potassium ATPase on membrane potential and subsequent action potential. By manipulating the different channels one can see the effect it has on an action potential. However, the site states that the initiation of the action potential begins/influenced by potassium channels closing. Potassium channels are voltage gated and thus depend on a specific voltage threshold to close. Furthermore the opening of voltage-gated sodium channels is what triggers the action potential. Given that these channels are voltage gated, the voltage that is needed most likely came from ligand-gated channels in the dendritic region close to the axon hillock. Ligand-gated sodium channels open allowing sodium to flow in, inducing a current and a change in the voltage. (140 words)

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Following links were added by SoM Neuroscience students 2014

G1. Synapses and Summary of Neuro Concepts [140204 11:04]
http://learntech.uwe.ac.uk/synapsesNeuro/Default.aspx?pageid=1887
http://bio-alive.com/tutorials/neuroscience.htm
Subitted by Paulina González-Carcache, Ariana López; Adan Castrodad; Bernardo Acevedo; Edwin Feliciano; Edgardo Martinez; June Yan Huang.

G2. Summary of Neuro concepts [140208 08:13]
http://quizlet.com/21598231/flashcards
http://faculty.sdmiramar.edu/faculty/sdccd/mmcmahon/docs/physam/NeuroLect.doc
Submitted by: Daniel Rodriguez Martinez; Alejandra Ramirez Colom; Francisco Tirado Polo; Zeyn Mirza; Joana Diaz; Andrea Montilla Santiago; Yadiel Sanchez Padilla.

G3. Action Potential [140210 11:52]
http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/action_potential.html
Submitted by: Michael Rivera, Nicole Colom, Rafael Mestres, Betty Albo, Lizmar Cerezo, Juan Carlos Osorio, Rafael Valles.

G4. Neuro Concepts in animations [140210 15:50]
http://sites.sinauer.com/neuroscience5e/animations02.03.html
Submitted by: Marta Rodriguez; Carlos Trigo; Andres Cordova; Juan Carlos Arrieta; Humberto Rovira; Sonum Bharill; Kyomara Hernandez.

G5. Action Potential Animation [140210 17:15]
http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/Education-resources/Education-and-learning/Big-Picture/All-issues/Inside-the-brain/WTS040399.htm
Submitted by: Patricia Delgado; Maritere Olascoaga; Fiorella Vicenty; Sergio Baerga; Oswaldo De Varona; Omar Rodriguez; Heather Hollembeak.

G6. Acetylcholine Neurotransmission [140210 17:33]
http://neuroscience.uth.tmc.edu/s1/chapter11.html
Submitted by: Karla Rodríguez-Barragán; Frances Fuster; Eduardo Partida; Reina Añeses; Víctor Leandro Guzmán; Manuel Santos; Munadel Awad.

G7. Making Alzheimer History [140210 18:13]
http://www.fundacioace.com/cat/index.php?idioma=cat
Submitted by: Juan Diego Gonzalez; Heine Rivera Rodriguez; Nanyaly Santiago Aponte; Bernard Muniz Mercado; Natalia Guzman Seda.

G8. Varios [140210 19:47] Links proposed or discussed previously
http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/action_potential.html
http://brainu.org/files/movies/synapse_pc.swf
http://sites.sinauer.com/neuroscience5e/animations05.html
Submitted by: Gabriela Lopez Rodriguez, Et al.

G9. Neuroanatomy [140210 21:21] Link that only have neuroanatomy.
http://www.neuroanatomy.ca/3D_files/3D_index.html
Submited by: Natalia Betancourt, Et al.

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Following links were added by SoM Neuroscience Students 2013

G1. Membrane Potential, Electrotonic Potential [130130 12:48]
http://www.humanneurophysiology.com/membranepotentials.htm
http://www.cvphysiology.com/Tutorials/Tutorial%20-%20cardiac%20electrophysiology%20rev2011.htm
Submitted by: Adriana Emmanueli, Adriana Marzán, Ana Isabel Coronado, Suheiry Márquez, Alvaro Gracia, Emilio Cazano, Heriberto M. Rodriguez & Ricardo Ayala

G2. [130130 12:24]
http://www.getbodysmart.com/ap/systems/tutorial.html “Link discussed previous year”
Submitted by: Yedidiach Ortiz, Gerardo Torres, Laura Bolorin, Walter Capote, Raquel Rivera, Nicolle M. Canales, Francisco Arroyo.

G3. Action Potential and Neurotransmission [130130 10:13]
http://www.mind.ilstu.edu/curriculum/modOverview.php?modGUI=232
Submitted by: Eunice Torres, Andrés Perez, Darlene Vargas, Yashira Torres, Zack Parente e Ivan Serrano

G4. Action Potential Production “Harvard Outreach” Updated [130130 09:54]
http://outreach.mcb.harvard.edu/animations/synaptic.swf “Link discussed previous year”
Submnitted by: Claudia Rodríguez; Gabriel Fuentes; Verónica Díaz; Lisa Koplik; Stephanie Garayalde; Texell Longoria; Javier González; Stephan Medina; Gouri Jas

G5. Neuron – Resting Potential, Nerve Impulse, Notes [130130 09:35]
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YP_P6bYvEjE&feature=youtube_gdata_player
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9euDb4TN3b0
http://www.physiologyweb.com/lecture_notes/neuronal_action_potential/neuronal_action_potential.html
Submitted by: Alejandro Albors, Brady Bleicher, Brandon Díaz, Amelia Guzmán, Ada Lordoño, Hiram Maldonado, Manuel Martínez, Laura Padilla, Connie Santana

G6. Resting Potential and Action Potential [130130 07:38]
http://neuroscience.uth.tmc.edu/s1/chapter01.html
Submitted by: Roberto Kutcher; Edrick Lugo; Nargies Licha; Whiyie Sang; Emanuel Mejias; Evan Salvati; Fiorella Reyes; Patricia Melendez

G7. Resting Membrane Potential; Passive Electrical Properties [130129 21:40]
http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp44/4402001.html
http://amrita.vlab.co.in/?sub=3&brch=43&sim=137&cnt=1
Submitted by: Genieve M. Martínez; Sabrin Saber Odeh; Roberto Colón; Jorge Cáceres; Naveed Khan; Ray Padridin; Ángel Vega; Jose G. Ruiz; Hiram Rodriguez

G8. Generation of Action Potentials [130129 21:07]
http://academic.uprm.edu/~ephoebus/id81.htm
Submitted by: Tatiana Harris, Jesus Hernández, Lizanell Irizarry, Herminio García-Estrada, John Hermenson, Deyson Lorenzo, Ana Isabel Martes y Ricardo.
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Following links were added by SoM Neuroscience students 2012

Action Potential “Text” [120125 11:06]
http://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Action_potential.html
Submitted by: Coral Candelario, Natalia Cintron, Tania Oyola, Frances Roddríguez, Emily Kuo, Amarilis Huertas, Ernesto Santini

Action Potential: Text & Animations “Three links” [120125 11:03; 12:45]
http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp15/15020.html
http://www.mind.ilstu.edu/curriculum/neurons_intro/neurons_intro.php
http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/301notes2.htm
Submitted by: Sebastian Carrasquillo, Luis Garraton, Patricia Maymi, Angel Venga, Angel Delacruz, Giovanni Ramos, Pedro Juan Hernandez, Eric Hernández, Enrique Acosta, Jorge Chelleuitte, Dennis Gonzáles

Action Potential [120125 10:28]
http://brainu.org/files/movies/action_potential_cartoon.swf
Submitted by: Babette Irizarry, Miguel A. Colon, Valerie Jimenez, Yadira Flores, Yasaira Rodriguez y Antonio Miranda

Resting Membrane Potential [120125 10:22]
http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp44/4401s.swf
Submitted by: Sandra Algaze, Nelly Rivera, Frances Velez, Alberto Sabates, Jorge Ballester, Juanmi Garcia, Steffano Coppola, Alvaro Bravo, Francisco Casalduc, Andrea Faraci

Action Potential and action of Drugs “Several links” [120124 22:33]
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7EyhsOewnH4&feature=related
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/drugs/mouse.html
http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp44/4402s.swf
Submitted by: Carla Saladini, Carlos Añeses, Richard Fontanez, Anthony Lombardi, Steve Shaw, Ruben Guadalupe, Odrick Rosas, Rafael Vaquer

Action Potential and comparison of conduction “Pearson Education” [120124 16:48]
http://wps.aw.com/bc_martini_eap_5/141/36119/9246587.cw/content/index.html
Presenters: Keydi Betancourt González, Lillibeth Caraballo, Rocío Garriga, Rosa Lozada Sierra, Evaristo Medina, Kristy Meléndez Otero, William Ortíz Baez

Action Potential Production “Harvard Outreach” Updated [120124 13:47]
http://outreach.mcb.harvard.edu/animations/actionpotential.swf
Submitted by: Mariola Vazquez, Aliana Bofill, Natalia Rodriguez, Carolina Currais, Cesar Carballo, Jetsen Rodriguez

Synaptic Transmission “Harvard Outreach” Updated [120124 13:01]
http://outreach.mcb.harvard.edu/animations/synaptic.swf
Submitted by: Yarisma Frometa, Melanie Torres, Anjanet Perez, Greysha Rivera, Jonathan Martinez y Namyr Velez.
Presentation by this Team: Synaptic Transmission

Channel Gating during an action potential “Gary Matthews -Neurobiology” [120123 12:01]
http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/matthews/channel.html
Submitted by: Michelle Martinez, Arlene Cadiz, Joseb Colon, Jose Davila, Jose Andres Reyes

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Following links were added by SoM Neuroscience students 2011
Sumanas
http://www.videosurf.com/video/action-potentials-115409459
GreatPacificMedia
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JShwXBWGMyY&feature=related
GetBodySmart
http://www.getbodysmart.com/ap/nervoussystem/menu/menu.html
Harvard
http://outreach.mcb.harvard.edu/animations.htm
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